Sam Francis

Untitled, 1984

106.7 X 73 inch

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What is Papier-Maché?

What is Papier-Maché?

Composite material that consists of pieces of pulp or paper reinforced using textiles and bound using adhesives like starch, wallpaper paste or glue. Preparation of Papier Mache can take two methods, one uses paper strips that are glued together and the other method makes use of pulp that's obtained through boiling or soaking paper to which a glue is added. Each of the two methods has its own procedure. The results however, are not much different.

Artwork by Niki de Saint Phalle
Nouveau Realism

Artistic movement that was founded by Pierre Restany, an art critic in 1960 together with the painter Yves Klein during a collective exposition at a gallery in Milan. The original manifesto was written by Pierre Restany and proclaimed Nouveau Realisme in April 1960. The declaration was later signed in October the same year by a goup of nine people namely Martial Raysse, Yves Klein, Daniel Spoerri, Jean Tinguely, Arman and Pierre Restany together with the three Ultra - Lettrists, Jacques de la villegle, Francois Dufrene and Raymond Hains.

Avant-garde

Unusual and experimental ideas in arts or on the side of people introducing the ideas. The ideas push the boundaries or limits of what is accepted as the status quo or norm in the realm of culture. The movement is liked by artists and many of them continue doing it tracing Dada's history through situationists all the way to the post modern artists.

Sound Art

Artistic discipline where sound is used as a medium. Like the other contemporary art genres, Sound Art is interdisciplinary in its nature. It can engage with a wide range of subjects that include electronics, acoustics, noise music, psychoacoustics, audio media, video or film and sculpture among other subjects. Early examples of sound art include Luigi Russolo's noise intoners and other experiments done by surrealists, Dadaists and happenings of Fluxus among others.

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